11 Difference Between Single Phase and 3 Phase System | Advantages

11 Difference Between Single Phase and 3 Phase System | Advantages

 

Do you wonder, why three phase system is more popular and widely used over one phase system?

What is the main difference between single phase and 3 phase system?

In the electrical environment, most of the important and interesting topic is the alternating current (AC) electrical system.

From this topic, I am describing the advantage of a three-phase system over a single phase system.

The system of the electrical power supply is classified into two parts.

  1. Single Phase System
  2. Three Phase System

Let’s learn these terms briefly.

What is a Single Phase AC System?

The arrangement of the single phase system is simple and less complex in wiring construction. To complete the electrical connection, it requires two wires (one phase and one neutral) for completing the electrical circuit.

It has the single-phase voltage supply (230v) for the low or normal load. It is used as a domestic load.

Single Phase AC System (source)

What is the Three Phase AC System?

Three phase system includes four wires– one neutral and three phases.

These three phases are separated by the equal magnitude and having a phase difference of 120º between each other.

One of the benefits of this system is that the 3-phase AC power supply is constant. And it does not falls to zero at all. This property has various advantages in electrical engineering. I will be describing this in the later section of this article.

A three-phase system is generated by the three symmetrical coils. Based on the structure, the three-phase symmetrical power system can be divided into two class.

  • Star Connection
  • Delta Connection

As per the requirement, we can use either star or delta connection.

Three Phase AC System (source)

These are the simple explanation of the single and three phases of the electrical system. Hope you understand how they are different from each other.

After the explanation, do you have a below question in your mind?

Advantages of Three Phase Over Single Phase System

In short, Yes! The three-phase system is better than a single phase system.

Presently, the three-phase AC system is very popular and useful for the electrical power generation, distribution, and transmission system.

A three-phase system is usually more economical than single-phase. Less conductor material is required to transmit electrical power in case of a three-phase system.

Now let’s see the detail explanation- why the three-phase system is better than a single phase system? And what are the advantages of the three-phase system?

Let’s deep dive in.

11 Difference between Single Phase and 3 Phase | Advantages

Let’s see the comparisons of the 3 phase AC system with the 1 phase AC system one by one.

After comparison you will also understand the advantages of a three-phase system over a single phase system.

1. Operation in the System

Parallel operation of three phase system is easier than the single-phase system, especially in the alternator.

2. Delivering the Power Supply

In the single phase system, the instantaneous AC power varies sinusoidally from zero to the peak value. This pulsating nature of power is not good for the load system.

And In the three-phase power system, constant electrical AC power is obtained due to the balanced and cumulative three-phase system.

3. The Output of the System

The three-phase machine gives more output than the single phase machine.

4. Power Transmission Economics

Three phase system is more economical than the single-phase system for power transmission. The maximum amount of power is transferred through three phases as compared to single phase supply.

5. Working Role and Usage

Especially, the domestic application like the electric motors works on the three-phase system.

For the proper working condition, three phases of the induction motor are better than the single phase of the induction motor. The three phases of the induction motor are self-starting.

Related Read: Difference between the electric motor and generator

6. Size of the Device

If you compare the same power rating machine, the size of the three-phase machine is smaller than the single phase machine.

7. Power Efficiency

In terms of power, the three-phase system is more efficient than the single phase system.

8. Power Factor

Three phase motors have higher power factor as compare to the single phase motor.

9. Reliability in Fault Condition

In the single phase system, if the fault occurs in the network, then the power supply completely fails. This is because it consists of only one phase.

In a three-phase system, the network has three phases. If the fault occurs on any one of the phases, the other two phases can continuously supply the power.

From this, it is clear, a three-phase system has good reliability than a single phase system, in case any failure occurs.

10. Rectifier System

For the rectifier service, three-phase AC is smoother than the single phase system. The three-phase voltage supply is easy to filter out the ripple components.

11. Maintainance

We already have seen how three phase system is more reliable. The three-phase supply requires less maintenance as compared to single phase supply.

Final Thought:

From the above top 10 reasons, the three-phase system is better than the single phase system. These are the main reasons, the three-phase systems are widely used in the transmission and distribution system.

If you have any specific point to discuss the difference between single phase and 3 phase, let me know in the comment.

Keep Learning!

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