What is an Inverter? | Operating Principle, Functions & Applications

What is an Inverter?

An inverter is a converter that changes DC electricity into AC power with regulated frequency and voltage or continuous frequency and voltage. It is made up of a filter circuit, control logic, and an inverter bridge. It is commonly utilized in computers, televisions, range hoods, refrigerators, video recorders, fans, lighting, electric grinding wheels, air conditioners, home theaters, power tools, sewing machines, DVDs, and VCDs.

Inverter’s Operating Principle

An inverter is a transformer that converts DC power to AC power by the use of a converter to reverse voltage. Both components use the more widely used pulse width modulation (PWM) technology to transform the power grid’s AC electricity into a reliable 12V DC output via the converter and high-frequency, high-voltage AC power through the inverter. A PWM-integrated controller serves as the main component, while the TL5001 chip is used in the inverter and UC3842 in the adaptor. The TL5001 has an operating voltage range of 3.6-40V. It is equipped with a low voltage protection circuit, a short circuit protection circuit, an oscillator, a regulator, an error amplifier, and a PWM generator with dead zone control.

The input interface portion consists of three signals: the panel current control signal DIM, the working enable voltage ENB, and the 12V DC input VIN. The motherboard’s MCU provides the ENB voltage, while the adapter provides the VIN. It has a value of 3V or 0. The inverter is not operational when ENB = 0 and operates normally when ENB = 3V. The motherboard supplies the DIM voltage, which varies between 0 and 5V. The current that the inverter provides to the load will vary, as will the DIM values that are supplied back to the PWM controller’s feedback end. The inverter’s output current increases with decreasing DIM value.

Voltage start circuit: The Panel’s backlight tube is illuminated by a high voltage output when ENB is high.

Internal reference voltage, error amplifier, oscillator, PWM, short circuit, overvoltage, and undervoltage protection, as well as an output transistor are all features of the PWM controller.

DC conversion: An energy storage inductor and a MOS switch tube make up the voltage conversion circuit. The push-pull amplifier amplifies the input pulse and causes the MOS tube to switch, allowing the DC voltage to charge and discharge the inductor and providing AC voltage to the inductor’s other end.

LC oscillation and output circuit: Make sure the voltage is 1600V, which is necessary for the lamp to start, and then lower it to 800V after it has.

Output voltage feedback: The sampling voltage is supplied back to the I inverter to stabilize the voltage output while the load is operating.

What the Inverter Does?

A battery or storage battery’s DC power is converted by the inverter into AC power, usually in the form of a 220v50HZ sine or square wave. A device that changes direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) is known as an inverter. It is made up of a filter circuit, control logic, and an inverter bridge.

To put it simply, an inverter is an electrical device that changes low-voltage direct current- 12, 24, or 48 volts- into 220 volt alternating current. The term comes from the fact that an inverter does the reverse of what is often done, which is rectify 220 volt alternating power into direct current for use. We live in a “mobility” era where people may work, communicate, play, and relax from anywhere. When a person is mobile, they require not only low-voltage direct current from batteries or storage batteries, but also 220 volt alternating current, which is necessary in everyday life and can be provided by an inverter.

What Sets Energy Storage Inverters Apart from Photovoltaic Inverters?

An energy storage system’s energy storage inverter is a device that primarily transforms electrical energy into two forms: alternating current, which can be utilized for other power requirements or for grid power supply, and direct current, which is appropriate for energy storage systems. Among its duties are power grid power balancing, frequency modification, and control over the battery system’s charging and discharging processes.

A solar photovoltaic system’s photovoltaic inverter is a device that primarily transforms the direct current energy produced by the array’s solar photovoltaic cells into alternating current energy for use in the grid or for personal use. Optimizing a solar photovoltaic array’s output power and maintaining voltage and current stability are the two primary purposes of a photovoltaic inverter.

Two types of inverters with distinct applications are energy storage inverters and solar inverters. Their uses and purposes are where they diverge most from one another:

Function of Inverter

The primary purpose of a photovoltaic inverter is to convert DC power from a solar photovoltaic array into AC power so that devices or the grid can use it. It guarantees voltage and current stability and maximizes a solar photovoltaic array’s output power. An energy storage inverter’s primary job is to convert DC power from an energy storage system- like a battery- into AC power so that it can be used for self-use or to supply the grid with electricity. It controls the storage and release of electricity, regulates the charging and discharging of the energy storage system, and facilitates power balance and grid frequency regulation.

Application of Inverter

The primary function of photovoltaic inverters is to transform DC electricity from solar power generating systems into AC power so that they can be connected to the grid. Large solar power plants, commercial photovoltaic projects, and rooftop solar photovoltaic systems all make extensive use of it. In order to meet power demands, energy storage systems primarily use energy storage inverters to store or release DC power into AC power. In addition, it is essential to wind power, photovoltaic, and electric vehicle charging pile systems.

Consequently, photovoltaic inverters are mostly used to connect to the grid and convert solar PV electricity into AC power, whereas energy storage inverters are primarily used for energy regulation and administration of energy storage systems. Despite having different functions, energy storage and photovoltaic inverters can work together in particular situations to maximize the synergy between grid power supply and energy storage in solar power generation systems. This integrated application can balance power consumption, increase the efficiency of energy use, and offer more dependable and sustainable energy solutions.

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